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City of Columbia

  •   State: 
    Boone County
      County FIPS: 
    38°56′51″N 92°19′36″W
      Area total: 
    67.45 sq mi (174.70 km²)
      Area land: 
    67.17 sq mi (173.98 km²)
      Area water: 
    0.28 sq mi (0.72 km²)
    761 ft (232 m)
    1826; Incorporated 1826
  •   Latitude: 
      Dman name cbsa: 
    Columbia, MO
    Eastern Standard Time (EST) UTC-5:00; Eastern Daylight Time (EDT) UTC-4:00
      ZIP codes: 

    Columbia, Boone County, Missouri, United States

  •   Population: 
      Population density: 
    1,879.48 residents per square mile of area (725.67/km²)
      Household income: 
      Unemployment rate: 
  •   Sales taxes: 
      Income taxes: 

Columbia is the county seat of Boone County and home to the University of Missouri. Founded in 1821, it is the principal city of the five-county Columbia metropolitan area. It is Missouri's fourth most-populous and fastest growing city, with an estimated 126,254 residents in 2020. The Missouri Tigers, the state's only major college athletic program, play football at Faurot Field and basketball at Mizzou Arena. The city rests upon the forested hills and rolling prairies of Mid-Missouri, near the Missouri River valley, where the Ozark Mountains begin to transform into plains and savanna. Limestone forms bluffs and glades while rain dissolves the bedrock, creating caves and springs which water the Hinkson, Roche Perche, and Bonne Femme creeks. Surrounding the city, Rock Bridge Memorial State Park, Mark Twain National Forest, and Big Muddy National Fish and Wildlife Refuge form a greenbelt preserving sensitive and rare environments. The first humans who entered the area at least 12,000 years ago were nomadic hunters. Later, woodland tribes lived in villages along waterways and built mounds in high places. The Osage and Missouria nations were expelled by the exploration of French traders and the rapid settlement of American pioneers. The latter arrived by the Boone's Lick Road and hailed from the culture of the Upland South, especially Virginia, Kentucky, and Tennessee. White and black people are the largest ethnicities, and people of Asian descent are the third-largest group.


Columbia's origins begin with the settlement of American pioneers from Kentucky and Virginia in an early 1800s region known as the Boonslick. In 1820, Boone County was formed and named after the recently deceased explorer Daniel Boone. Columbia's permanence was ensured when it was chosen as county seat in 1821 and the Boone's Lick Road was rerouted down Broadway. Original plans for the town set aside land for a state university. Columbia College, distinct from today's and later to become the University of Missouri, was founded in 1839. The city benefited from being a stagecoach stop of the Santa Fe and Oregon trails, and later from the MissouriKansasTexas Railroad. In the spring of 1923, James Scott, an African-American janitor at the university, was arrested on allegations of raping his daughter and lynched by a white mob. In 2010, a marker was erected at the lynching site to serve as a memorial to Scott. In 2011, a headstone was put at his grave at Columbia Cemetery; it includes his wife's name and parents' names and names of his parents. In 1901, a newspaper, Rufus Logan, established a newspaper to serve Columbia's professional community. The first newspaper began in 1830; in 1832, the first theater in the state was opened; and in 1835, the state's first agricultural fair was held. By 1839, the population of Boone County and wealth of Columbia was exceeded in Missouri only by that of St. Louis County.


Columbia is 120 miles (190 km) away from both St. Louis and Kansas City, and 29 miles (47 km) north of the state capital of Jefferson City. The city is near the Missouri River, between the Ozark Plateau and the Northern Plains. Large mammals found in the city include urbanized coyotes, red foxes, and numerous whitetail deer. Large bird species are abundant in parks and include the Canada goose, mallard duck, as well as shorebirds, including the great egret and great blue heron. The Eurasian tree sparrow, an introduced species, is limited in North America to the counties surrounding St. louis. Columbia has a humid continental climate (Köppen Dfa) marked by sharp seasonal contrasts in temperature, and is in USDA Plant Hardiness Zone 6a. The monthly daily average temperature ranges from 31.0 °F (0.6 °C) in January to 78.5 °f (25.8 °C), while the high reaches or exceeds 90 °F on an average of 35 days per year. Extreme temperatures have ranged from 26 °F [32 °C] on February 12, 1899 to 113°F (45°C) on July 12 and 14, 1954. Precipitation tends to be greatest and most frequent in the latter half of spring, when severe weather is also most common. Snow averages 16.5 inches (42 cm) per season, mostly from December to March, with occasional November accumulation and falls in April being rare.


Downtown Columbia is an area of approximately one square mile surrounded by the University of Missouri on the south, Stephens College to the east, and Columbia College on the north. Four historic districts located within the city are listed on the National Register of Historic Places: Downtown Columbia, the East Campus Neighborhood, Francis Quadrangle, and the North Ninth Street Historic District. The city's most dense commercial areas are primarily along Interstate 70, U.S. Route 63, Stadium Boulevard, Grindstone Parkway, and Downtown. Since the early-21st century, a large number of high-rise apartment complexes have been built in downtown Columbia. Many of these buildings also offer mixed-use business and retail space on the lower levels. These developments have not been without criticism, with some expressing concern the buildings hurt the historic feel of the area, or that the city does not yet have the infrastructure to support them. The City of Columbia recognizes 63 neighborhood associations, with most of them located in the downtown and East Campus areas of the city, as well as the South Campus Neighborhood and the West Campus Neighborhood. It is located on the Missouri River, which runs through the city's downtown area and into the heart of the downtown area. It has a population of 1.2 million people, making it one of the largest cities in the United States, along with Kansas City and St. Louis. It was the site of the World War II Battle of the Bulge, which took place in World War I.


As of the census of 2010, 108,500 people, 43,065 households, and 21,418 families resided in the city. There were 46,758 housing units at an average density of 741.2 per square mile (286.2/km²) The racial makeup of the city was 79.0% White, 11.3% African American, 0.3%. Native American, 5.2% Asian, 0,1% Pacific Islander, 1.1% from other races, and 3.1%. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.4% of the population. The median income for a household in theCity was $33,729. Males had a median income of $34,710 versus $26,694 for females. The per capita income for the City was $19,507. About 9.4%. of families and 19.2%. of the residents were below the poverty line. However, traditional statistics of income and poverty can be misleading when high school and college populations are high as Columbia. The city has a large student population, such as those with those over. 18.7% under the age of 18, 26.7. from 18 to 24, 28.7%. from 25 to 44, 16.2! from 45 to 64, and 8.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was2.94. In the city the population was spread out, with 18.8% of residents under the Age of 18. For every 100 females, there were 91.8 males.


With a Gross Metropolitan Product of $9.6 billion in 2018, Columbia's economy makes up 3% of the Gross State Product of Missouri. Insurance corporations headquartered in Columbia include Shelter Insurance and the Columbia Insurance Group. The Columbia Regional Airport and the Missouri River Port of Rocheport connect the region with trade and transportation. According to Columbia's 2018 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the city are: Missouri State High School Activities Association (MSHSAA) and MFA Oil. Columbia's metro area economy is slightly larger than the economy of Rwanda. The city's economy is dominated by education, healthcare, and insurance. Jobs in government are also common, either in Columbia or a half-hour south in Jefferson City. The top employer in Columbia is Missouri State high school activities association (MS HSAA) The city has a population of 2.2 million. The average household income is $50,000. Columbia has an unemployment rate of 3.2%. The city is home to the Missouri State University of Science and Technology (MSU-SLT) and the University of Missouri-Columbia (MSUC) The average income in the metro area is $49,000, the highest in the state. The metro area has an average household wage of $60,000 and the city has an employment rate of 8.7%. The top employers are: MFA Incorporated, MBS Textbook Exchange, StorageMart, Slackers CDs and Games, Carfax, and Carfax.


Columbia is located midway between St. Louis and Kansas City. It is home to the University of Missouri and Columbia College. The city is also home to Stephens College, a private institution known for performing arts. The Missouri Theatre Center for the Arts and Jesse Auditorium are Columbia's largest fine arts venues. The "We Always Swing" Jazz Series and the Roots N Blues Festival is held in Columbia. Columbia has many bars and restaurants that provide diverse styles of cuisine, due in part to having three colleges in the city. Columbia is known across the nation for its college pizza, which is frequented by college students and students from other colleges. It also hosts the Show-Me State Games, a non-profit program of the Missouri Governor's Council on Physical Fitness and Health. It was the regional host for the 2007 NCAA Baseball Championship. In 2007, Columbia hosted the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics Volleyball National Championship, which the Lady Cougars participated in. In 2008, filmmaker Todd Sklar completed the film Box Elder, which was filmed entirely in and around Columbia and theUniversity of Missouri. In 2009, Willie Nelson and Snoop Dogg performed at 9th Street Summerfest, which closes part of that street several nights each summer to hold outdoor performances and has featured Willie Nelson (2009), The Flaming Lips (2010), Weird Al Yankovic (2013), and others. In 2010, the city hosted the Missouri Contemporary Ballet, which has featured artists such as David Bowie, Elton John, and The Rolling Stones.

Parks and recreation

Stephens Lake Park is known for its 11-acre fishing/swimming lake. Rock Bridge State Park contains some of the most popular hiking trails in the state. Harmony Bends Disc Golf Course was named the 2017 Disc Golf course of the Year by As of June, 2022, Harmony B bends still continues to rank as the No. 1 public course, and #2 overall course in the United States. The MKT is a 10-foot wide trail built on the old railbed of the MKT railroad that begins in downtown Columbia in Flat Branch Park at 4th and Cherry Streets. The all-weather crushed limestone surface provides opportunities for walking, jogging, running, and bicycling. The city is home to a variety of community festivals such as the Roots N Blues Festival, and outdoor concert series at the amphitheater. It is also home to the Missouri State Fair, which runs from May through October each year, and the Missouri Museum of Natural History, which is open to the public from April through October. The Missouri State Museum is open year-round and has a collection of more than 2,000 works of art, including art sculptures, waterfalls, and sculptures. The state fair runs from April to October and is held every year in conjunction with the Missouri Game and Fish Commission (MSFC) and Missouri State Parks. It also has a museum of natural history, including the Missouri River Museum, which dates back to the 17th century.

Air Quality, Water Quality, Superfund Sites & UV Index

The Air Quality index is in Columbia, Boone County, Missouri = 73.6. These Air Quality index is based on annual reports from the EPA. Higher values are better (100=best). The number of ozone alert days is used as an indicator of air quality, as are the amounts of seven pollutants including particulates, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, lead, and volatile organic chemicals. The Water Quality Index is 60. A measure of the quality of an area’s water supply as rated by the EPA. Higher values are better (100=best). The EPA has a complex method of measuring the watershed quality, using 15 indicators such as pollutants, turbidity, sediments, and toxic discharges. The Superfund Sites Index is 99. Higher is better (100=best). Based upon the number and impact of EPA Superfund pollution sites in the county, including spending on the cleanup efforts. The UV Index in Columbia = 4.4 and is a measure of an area's exposure to the sun's ultraviolet rays. This is most often a combination of sunny weather, altitude, and latitude. The UV Index has been defined by the WHO ( and is uniform worldwide.


The most recent city population of 1,273 individuals with a median age of 26.2 age the population grows by 14.63% in Columbia, Boone County, Missouri population since 2000 and are distributed over a density of 1,879.48 residents per square mile of area (725.67/km²). There are average 2.12 people per household in the 18,894 households with an average household income of $33,746 a year. The unemployment rate in Alabama is 6.80% of the available work force and has dropped -2.46% over the most recent 12-month period and the projected change in job supply over the next decade based on migration patterns, economic growth, and other factors will increase by 29.28%. The number of physicians in Columbia per 100,000 population = 497.1.


The annual rainfall in Columbia = 40.4 inches and the annual snowfall = 24 inches. The annual number of days with measurable precipitation (over .01 inch) = 111. The average number of days per year that are predominantly sunny = 195. 88 degrees Fahrenheit is the average daily high temperature for the month of July and 19.2 degrees Fahrenheit is the average daily low temperature for the month of January. The Comfort Index (higher=better) is 32, where higher values mean a more pleasant climate. The Comfort Index measure recognizes that humidity by itself isn't the problem. (Have you noticed nobody ever complains about the weather being 'cold and humid?) It's in the summertime that we notice the humidity the most, when it's hot and muggy. Our Comfort Index uses a combination of afternoon summer temperature and humidity to closely predict the effect that the humidity will have on people.

Median Home Cost

The percentage of housing units in Columbia, Boone County, Missouri which are owned by the occupant = 35.47%. A housing unit is a house, apartment, mobile home, or room occupied as separate living quarters. The average age of homes = 24 years with median home cost = $119,390 and home appreciation of -0.79%. This is the value of the years most recent home sales data. Its important to note that this is not the average (or arithmetic mean). The median home price is the middle value when you arrange all the sales prices of homes from lowest to highest. This is a better indicator than the average, because the median is not changed as much by a few unusually high or low values. The property tax rate of $9.77 shown here is the rate per $1,000 of home value. If for simplification for example the tax rate is $14.00 and the home value is $250,000, the property tax would be $14.00 x ($250,000/1000), or $3500. This is the 'effective' tax rate.


The local school district spends $4,569 per student. There are 14.6 students for each teacher in the school, 502 students for each Librarian and 301 students for each Counselor. 4.46% of the area’s population over the age of 25 with an Associate Degree or other 2-year college degree, 24.71% with a master’s degree, Ph.D. or other advanced college degree and 20.07% with high school diplomas or high school equivalency degrees (GEDs).

  • Columbia's population in Boone County, Missouri of 10,371 residents in 1930 has dropped 0,12-fold to 1,273 residents after 120 years, according to the official 2020 census.

    Approximately 51.38% female residents and 48.62% male residents live in Columbia, Boone County, Missouri.

    As of 2020 in Columbia, Boone County, Missouri are married and the remaining 64.88% are single population.

  • 17 minutes is the average time that residents in Columbia require for a one-way commute to work. A long commute can have different effects on health. A Gallup poll in the US found that in terms of mental health, long haul commuters are up to 12 percent more likely to experience worry, and ten percent less likely to feel well rested. The Gallup poll also found that of people who commute 61­–90 minutes each day, a whopping one third complained of neck and back pain, compared to less than a quarter of people who only spend ten minutes getting to work.

    71.04% of the working population which commute to work alone in their car, 11.91% of the working population which commutes to work in a carpool, 1.04% of the population that commutes using mass transit, including bus, light rail, subway, and ferry. 3.04% of the population that has their home as their principal place of work.

  • Of the total residential buildings in Columbia, Boone County, Missouri, 35.47% are owner-occupied homes, another 56.03% are rented apartments, and the remaining 8.50% are vacant.

  • The 39.40% of the population in Columbia, Boone County, Missouri who identify themselves as belonging to a religion are distributed among the following most diverse religions.

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